Acts 8:4 KJV — Therefore they that were scattered abroad went every where preaching the word.
This verse comes right after Saul is mentioned, and his desire to make "havock" on the church. Of course this is prior to his conversion on the Damascus road.
How did the these believers respond? They preached the Gospel wherever they went. The very spread of the Gospel, that turned the world upside down, was birthed out of persecution.
We recently dealt with the issue of not meeting together in corporate worship, but that doesn't mean our witness should have stopped!
If you want the Lord to use you, you must be willing to be used where you are! Don't waste your time just anticipating, but use your time in participation. Somebody where you are right now needs the Gospel, who is going to preach(share) it with them?
Acts 9:1-3 KJV — And Saul, yet breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord, went unto the high priest, And desired of him letters to Damascus to the synagogues, that if he found any of this way, whether they were men or women, he might bring them bound unto Jerusalem. And as he journeyed, he came near Damascus: and suddenly there shined round about him a light from heaven:
The salvation account of the Apostle Paul is an amazing one to say the least! If we had him as one of our prospects to go visit, we probably wouldn't give him a chance of being saved. Just think about it...
He didn't show any kind of remorse or guilt over his actions. He was beyond zealous in his persecution of the church. He knew a great majority of Scriptures, and they hadn't had not steered him towards the great sacrifice of the Lord Jesus Christ. We probably would just label him as not ready or willing to hear the Gospel.
Yet there is a word in this passage that is just blows the lid off of everything...suddenly! Are there people, who the Lord has been dealing with and drawing that just seem ripe for the picking, who we just simply finish connecting the dots for them? Of course! But there are some, who when presented with Gospel, all of sudden become aware through the conviction of the Holy Spirit, that they are sinners in desperate need of Savior! That's why it is vital to share the Gospel, with those around us! You might run into someone who has been seeking the truth or you might just be used in an all of a sudden salvation!
Go tell somebody about Jesus today!
Acts 11:17 KJV — Forasmuch then as God gave them the like gift as he did unto us, who believed on the Lord Jesus Christ; what was I, that I could withstand God?
Through a series of providential events, the Lord had changed the heart of Peter concerning the Gentiles and their need of the Gospel!
Sure enough, him preaching and spending time with Gentiles, wasn't readily accepted by some of the circumcision, or the Jews who had responded to the Gospel.
Yet, his response to them is great, "...what was I, that I could withstand God?"
I was new to Peter too, but if the Lord wanted the Gentiles to hear the Gospel,
Peter wasn't going to get in the way of what the Lord wanted to do.
We should determine the same attitude as well, a whosoever, whenever, wherever attitude. Because can we honestly say we want to get in the way of the Lord?
Acts 12:16 KJV — But Peter continued knocking: and when they had opened the door, and saw him, they were astonished.
I would encourage you go and read the account that takes place here in Acts 12. It is fascinating and truly amazing! There is a lot going on, but one of the truths we can take away is that God answers our prayers!
Peter has been thrown in prison, with a death sentence placed over him, the people of God begin to pray for him and his release. Through what seems as impossible means, Peter is freed from jail and ends up at the door of the very people praying for him. They can hardly believe that it is him!
Has God ever answered a prayer in your
life? Has that answer seemingly just showed up at your front door and left you astonished at the ability of God?
Don't take an answered prayer lightly, but learn to dwell on all that the Lord did just to show Himself faithful to you!
Thank God, He answers prayers!!!
Acts 13:15-16 KJV — And after the reading of the law and the prophets the rulers of the synagogue sent unto them, saying, Ye men and brethren, if ye have any word of exhortation for the people, say on. Then Paul stood up, and beckoning with his hand said, Men of Israel, and ye that fear God, give audience.
Having played, watched, and enjoyed sports for the majority of my life, there are some ideologies that have stuck with me over the years.
One of those, is to recognize the opportunity and then seize upon it. For example, in football the running back must recognize the seam in the line, and then burst through for a positive play.
This is what we see here in the life of Paul, the ruler of the synagogue practically opens the floor for anybody to speak, and Paul seizes upon the opportunity to preach the Gospel!
We often pray for the Lord to use us, but then when the opportunity presents itself to share the Gospel or testify of the Lord's faithfulness, we hesitate and leave the opportunity wasted.
So when the opportunity presents itself, use it to honor God and share the Gospel!
Acts 14:22 KJV — Confirming the souls of the disciples, and exhorting them to continue in the faith, and that we must through much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.
When we were at the Ark Encounter, we went on 4D simulator, which took us "back in time" to watch the ark being built. It was a neat experience and interesting to say the least. The biggest difference was that I was just observing, and not actually having to go through what Noah and his family were.
We often have the same mentality concerning the 1st century church. How cool would it be to observe these men as they turned the world upside down with the Gospel. Just as long as I don't get thrown in prison, stoned, or beaten and left for dead.
We might want to be observers to these great moments, but we can't have that same attitude in our personal lives. We like the disciples and everybody else in the Bible, will go through trials and tribulation.
Thankfully, we do not go through them alone, and heaven still is our promised end! So just keep going!
Acts 17:28 KJV — For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.
This verse in Acts is a statement that Paul makes as he is speaking with highly educated philosophers, who in their thinking, looked at Christianity as mere idea or philosophy. Real Christianity is more than just an idea, it is a relationship with a person!
For in Him we live...for in Him we move...for in Him we have our being...
All that we really have is in Christ! If you remove Christ out of my life I am left with nothing!
Many people have their idea of what Christianity is, but those who have that relationship with Christ, know that is way more than just an idea! It is real!
Acts 20:9-11 KJV — And there sat in a window a certain young man named Eutychus, being fallen into a deep sleep: and as Paul was long preaching, he sunk down with sleep, and fell down from the third loft, and was taken up dead. And Paul went down, and fell on him, and embracing him said, Trouble not yourselves; for his life is in him. When he therefore was come up again, and had broken bread, and eaten, and talked a long while, even till break of day, so he departed.
The Apostle Paul was something else. It is as if nothing could throw him off of his mission or message, once he started.
Paul has preached well into the night, and this young man, Eutychus, while listening Paul preach, falls asleep on the perch, and falls presumably to his death.
Paul's reaction is fascinating, he goes over to Eutychus, embraces him, and declares not to worry because he isn't dead.
Then Paul just goes back to preaching and ministering.
Where is the panic? Where is the worry? Where is the chaos?
Even with something so shocking as this, Paul was going to stay focused and continue serving the Lord, because he knew the Lord was going to handle the situation!
And the Lord did...
Acts 20:12 KJV — And they brought the young man alive, and were not a little comforted.
How many times have petty things completely side tracked us in our service for the Lord? If we are going to faithfully serve the Lord, there are going to be times when we are just going to have to trust the Lord with certain situations and just continue on living for Jesus!
Acts 21:40 KJV — And when he had given him licence, Paul stood on the stairs, and beckoned with the hand unto the people. And when there was made a great silence, he spake unto them in the Hebrew tongue, saying,
Paul was a tremendous man of God. He was great preacher and greatly used of God to pen down the majority of the New Testament under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost. He was also a man of great humility.
As he returns to Jerusalem after his journeys preaching the Gospel, it causes quite an uproar. He is spotted in the temple and is immediately seized upon by the Jews, who are ready to end him completely. The chief of the captain gets
word of the uproar and sends soldiers to arrest Paul. They bind Paul with two chains and lead him to the castle until every thing can be sorted out. Mid-way up the steps Paul asks to address the people and is given permission to do so.
What does Paul tell the crowd that was just about to kill him? The Gospel!!!
Are people going to come against us? Are people going to wish us ill-will? Are people going to try and hurt us?
Unfortunately that answer is yes, but does that mean we aren't to testify to them of the Gospel? No!
Will they respond or will they reject it? That is up to the Lord, we are just instructed to proclaim the Gospel, and yes to even those who come against us!
Acts 23:12-13 KJV — And when it was day, certain of the Jews banded together, and bound themselves under a curse, saying that they would neither eat nor drink till they had killed Paul. And they were more than forty which had made this conspiracy.
Talk about being in dire straits. Over 40 men have come together, with one mission, kill the Apostle Paul! For all intensive purposes, this looks like the end of the road for Paul!
Yet, the Lord wasn't done with Paul, nor was He worried with how He was going to get Paul out of this situation. He already had a plan!
Acts 23:22-24 KJV — So the chief captain then let the young man depart, and charged him, See thou tell no man that thou hast shewed these things to me. And he called unto him two centurions, saying, Make ready two hundred soldiers to go to Caesarea, and horsemen threescore and ten, and spearmen two hundred, at the third hour of the night; And provide them beasts, that they may set Paul on, and bring him safe unto Felix the governor.
Talk about an entourage! Almost 500 Roman soldiers traveled with Paul to make sure he was safely brought to Felix.
What a mighty God! He literally used one of the most feared armies of all time to make sure the Gospel continued spread and protect one His preachers!
Just remember when you feel like your backed into a corner and can't see a way out, remember the Lord is in your corner and He is the Way! Just trust Him!
Acts 24:25 KJV — And as he reasoned of righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come, Felix trembled, and answered, Go thy way for this time; when I have a convenient season, I will call for thee.
Paul has reasoned with and presented the Gospel to Felix and his wife Drusilla. Felix tells Paul that he will deal with all that Paul has told him at a more convenient time.
As far as we can tell that convenient time never came.
If you are waiting for a convenient time to serve the Lord, you will probably spend all your time just waiting.
We don't live in a perfect world, you will always have problems, and your mind will always come up with excuses.
Serve God anyways! It may not be convenient but don't worry, His grace is still sufficient!
Acts 25:19 KJV — But had certain questions against him of their own superstition, and of one Jesus, which was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive.
The Jews have had a plot to kill Paul for quite some time now, but because he has been kept away in a Roman prison, they haven't had the opportunity to carry out their plans.
What exactly has made them so upset with Paul, that they are willing and ready to take his life?
Has he murdered somebody?...No
Has he stolen from them?...No
Has he attacked them personally?...No
Well, what has he done?
"...and of one Jesus, which was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive..."
He has simply told them that Jesus is alive, and they need to turn and trust in Him!
That mindset hasn't changed in all these years. The very thought of Jesus being alive, still causes those who are against God to go into rage!
Nobody attacks the Muslims for their faith, nobody tells the Buddhist to get with the times, or that their "sacred texts" have no place in modern society.
James 4:4 KJV — Ye adulterers and adulteresses, know ye not that the friendship of the world is enmity with God? whosoever therefore will be a friend of the world is the enemy of God.
We are living in a world that is literally going against God!
Yet Paul, continued on in spite of the opposition and we should too! We are not fighting a losing battle! The Gospel is still the Good News and the source of real victory!
Acts 26:2 KJV — I think myself happy, king Agrippa, because I shall answer for myself this day before thee touching all the things whereof I am accused of the Jews:
Just think about all that Paul has been through to this point. Yet, when it came time to share his testimony, notice the attitude Paul had.
He was happy! Yes, happy!
One of the greatest things we can show this world, that is searching for real satisfaction and genuine happiness, is the fact that because of Christ, we actually experience those realities!
As long as I remember who I am in Christ, and all that He has done for me, I will be reminded how happy or blessed I really am in Christ! It will make a difference in my attitude as I witness to others!
As the old kid's song goes, "If your happy and you know it, your face will surely show it!"
Acts 27:25 KJV — Wherefore, sirs, be of good cheer: for I believe God, that it shall be even as it was told me.
Most of us know the context of this story. Paul is on a boat full of soldiers and prisoners, that has been caught in a great storm and eventually is torn into two separate pieces.
Yet, Paul admonishes all to be of good cheer, because of his faith in God, and that He would preserve every life on board.
Often times, we want to believe God will just take us out of the storm and if He doesn't then we go through it disgruntled and angry.
But just think as people floated in on boards and pieces of the ship, they had to agree with Paul, God has preserved their life!
He not just a great God because He can protect you from the storm, but He can carry you safely through the storm!
So just trust Him!!!
Acts 28:30-31 KJV — And Paul dwelt two whole years in his own hired house, and received all that came in unto him, Preaching the kingdom of God, and teaching those things which concern the Lord Jesus Christ, with all confidence, no man forbidding him.
As I read the last few verses of the Book of Acts, I was reminded of one simple truth.
Paul stuck with the stuff! It didn't matter where he was or what he was going through his message didn't change! He just preached Christ!
We should be the same way, whether it's the church house, the living room, the job-site, the grocery aisle, or you fill in the blank, we are to be ambassadors for Christ!
I encourage you this morning to stick by the stuff!
Joshua 1:14 KJV — Your wives, your little ones, and your cattle, shall remain in the land which Moses gave you on this side Jordan; but ye shall pass before your brethren armed, all the mighty men of valour, and help them;
I remember a man telling me one time, "All I have to do is go to work, and bring back money to provide for my family. That is the only responsibility that I have."
Should a man provide for his family? Of course, but your role is so much greater than that! You are the head of the home and the leader of your family!
The spirituality and the atmosphere of your home and family starts with you! You may clock out of your job, but please don't clock out of your home! Just as much as the wives and children in Joshua's day needed godly, strong, and courageous men, so does your family!
What kind of man are you going to be?
Joshua 2:14 KJV — And the men answered her, Our life for yours, if ye utter not this our business. And it shall be, when the LORD hath given us the land, that we will deal kindly and truly with thee.
This excerpt comes from a conversation between the Israeli spies and Rahab, as she has just hid them from the king's guard and spared their life.
Notice the response they give after Rahab asks for the protection of her and her family, when Israel comes to conquer Jericho.
"...Our life for yours..."
That phrase just hit home this morning.
We live so much of our lives for us. When was the last time we gave up "us" for "them"? When has it been evident that you put "your life" on hold just to help out in someone else's life?
We know that the Christian life is all about Jesus and others, but are we actually living that way? Could you make the same statement these men did?
Joshua 3:5 KJV — And Joshua said unto the people, Sanctify yourselves: for to morrow the LORD will do wonders among you.
We have all probably either received the email or seen the Facebook posts, that tell us if we forward it 5 different people, then the Lord will give us some great fortune of money or do a great miracle in our lives. I've yet to see these things consistently, if at all, come to fruition.
Here the Lord was going to do a marvelous work in the sight of Israel, He was going to split the Jordan River and allow the nation of Israel to cross over, in much the same way as He had done at the Red Sea years before.
He has one simple command, be prepared!
They were told to "sanctify" themselves. Or prepare themselves for what was about to happen. Their lack of preparation wasn't going to keep the LORD from working, but I would help them to react to it better!
Instead of scrambling around and gathering all of their goods and supplies, and they trying to rush across Jordan before the waters came rushing back down, they were able to just step off into the dry river bed of Jordan, and follow after the Ark of the Covenant.
Are you preparing now, for how the Lord may use you in the future? If the Lord called you to specific place or specific ministry, would you loss precious time just scrambling around, or would you because of preparation be able to just step off and follow God across your Jordan?
Joshua 4:10 KJV — For the priests which bare the ark stood in the midst of Jordan, until every thing was finished that the LORD commanded Joshua to speak unto the people, according to all that Moses commanded Joshua: and the people hasted and passed over.
What sight that must have been to see the overflowing, Jordan River rolled back and the Israelites walking across to other side.
But there in the middle of all of it, was the Ark of the Covenant. For some that Ark was a comforting sight, as long as the Ark was there, that meant the Lord was there! For some that ark was a reminder to keep going, for God's will was on the other side of Jordan. For some that Ark was simply a clear presentation of the mighty power of
God, for it was in the midst of river bed that just moments before was flowing, but now the water had been rolled back.
But imagine if you will, being the last person to cross over Jordan, and the relief you would feel when you seen that the Ark was still there! You would have no problem testifying of the faithfulness of God!
I can almost hear the testimonies...
"The Lord was willing to wait on little ol' me or the Lord made sure I made it safely to the other side, even though I wasn't as fast as everybody else!"
Let me remind you of one thing this morning, God is Faithful! He will be waiting in your "Jordan" river, and He will see you in, through, and across to the other side! Just trust Him!
Joshua 5:12 KJV — And the manna ceased on the morrow after they had eaten of the old corn of the land; neither had the children of Israel manna any more; but they did eat of the fruit of the land of Canaan that year.
The activity that took place in the beginning of this chapter, makes me rejoice to be alive now and not back then. I would not like to have been Joshua or the children of Israel then.
But as we progress we come to this verse in the latter end of the chapter, we notice a great truth about the diet of the children of Israel.
The manna was that heaven-sent provision for the nation of Israel as they wandered through the wilderness, but after crossing over Jordan, they were no longer wandering they were marching on a conquest of Canaan. There was corn, but more specifically "old corn" which was left behind by those inhabitants who had fled into Jericho. Now these both, could have sustained the children of Israel, but God had something better for them. It was the fruit of the land of Canaan. That was the land flowing with milk and honey! It was the promise of God!
Thank God for my salvation, and that never gets old, but the manna wasn't a picture of salvation the Tabernacle was. The manna is a reminder that God will provide. But it only lasted a day at a time. Do you know any Christians who can only talk about what the Lord used to do for them 5 years ago, but nothing recently?
They are trying to live off of manna, and are missing out on the fruit of God's promises now.
Thank God for the provisions of the past, but go and get some fresh fruit!
Joshua 6:1 KJV — Now Jericho was straitly shut up because of the children of Israel: none went out, and none came in.
There it was, the great city of Jericho. The first stop on Israel's conquest of the promise land. History tells us that the walls of Jericho were nothing to scoff at. They were tall, wide, and strong.
But we must not forget, that even in their magnificence they were man made.
Often times, we look at our "walls of Jericho" and think there is no possible way in, over, through, or under them.
So how did Israel deal with them? By faith!
They didn't pick up a battering ram and try to pound their way through, they didn't construct ladders in an attempt to scale, nor did they break out the shovels and try to dog under them. They trusted in the plan of God!
So many times we often resort to attempting to break through our walls, instead of trusting in the Lord to break down our walls!
We need to learn to just march around, shout, and have faith that the Lord is going to do what He said He would do!
Joshua 8:34-35 KJV — And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessings and cursings, according to all that is written in the book of the law. There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the congregation of Israel, with the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that were conversant among them.
Joshua read the Law before all the people of Israel. What's so significant about that? It was a common practice of the Israelites in the Old Testament.
For me, what makes it so interesting is the timing of it. Just a quick recap of what has just happened. The Israelites have just dominate the people of Ai, and utterly destroyed them, and left their city as heap.
The Bible says that Joshua did not take his hand from his spear until the battle was over. At least 12,000 people perished in that battle.
Does Joshua brag and boast about his great skill or leadership? No, he builds an altar out of non-hewn stones and offers sacrifices unto the LORD.
But then he gathers the children of Israel together, and even those strangers among, and reads the entire law to them. Both the blessings and the curses.
Even after a great effort and victory, Joshua knew what Israel needed to hear, and it wasn't some arrogant victory speech, but it was the Word of God!
With all that he had just done, Joshua still had time for God's Word! Can we say the same thing about us?
Joshua 9:14 KJV — And the men took of their victuals, and asked not counsel at the mouth of the LORD.
Some men from surrounding cities, in an attempt to spare their lives from the conquering Israelites, have dressed themselves up as travelers who have come from some far distance, and in need of assistance.
They looked and sounded believable, because without hesitation they were allowed to join with the people of Israel.
Yet notice what they did not do, they did not consult the Lord on the matter. They just went with what seemed right.
I've been there myself, there was no need to pray, because everything just seemed like it was good, what could go wrong?
We often leave prayer up to decisions that we know are difficult or stressful. But wisdom and Godly discernment is just necessary for difficult decisions, but for ones that seem so easy that we think we can just handle them ourselves.
Just want to caution you, to never get so ahead of yourself, that you forget to pray about it! You can never sincerely and honestly pray too much!
Joshua 10:40 KJV — So Joshua smote all the country of the hills, and of the south, and of the vale, and of the springs, and all their kings: he left none remaining, but utterly destroyed all that breathed, as the LORD God of Israel commanded.
Joshua would have been someone, if he was walking your way, you better get ready for a fight, and by ready, I mean get ready to surrender, and beg for mercy!
Joshua was great leader and a tremendous warrior. Yet, his success wasn't necessarily tied to his strength and military prowess, but rather his obedience to the commands of God.
He not only declared to the children of Israel to obey the laws of God, but he himself was promised success if he did so personally.
And that he did, in spite of his location, he just obeyed the commandments of God, and God granted him great success! The recipe is still true today, are we obeying the commands of God?
Joshua 12:1 KJV — Now these are the kings of the land, which the children of Israel smote, and possessed their land on the other side Jordan toward the rising of the sun, from the river Arnon unto mount Hermon, and all the plain on the east:
If you go and read the rest of this chapter, it lists out the kings that were defeated by Joshua. There were 31 kings on that list by the end of the chapter. 31 victories for the nation of Israel, 31 times they watched the Lord keep His Word, 31 times they were reminded that God is faithful.
I would encourage you to sit down, and begin to write out the times God was faithful to you, took care of you, provided for you, protected you, or fought the battle for you. If we would do this sincerely, I have a feeling our list would be longer than 31. What great reminder that would be to us, but an even better record we could pass on to the next generation!
So just how long would your list be?
Joshua 14:10-11 KJV — And now, behold, the LORD hath kept me alive, as he said, these forty and five years, even since the LORD spake this word unto Moses, while the children of Israel wandered in the wilderness: and now, lo, I am this day fourscore and five years old. As yet I am as strong this day as I was in the day that Moses sent me: as my strength was then, even so is my strength now, for war, both to go out, and to come in.
Just recently Mike Tyson stepped back into the ring to box Roy Jones Jr. Both men, were some of the best boxers in their respective weight classes during their careers. Both men have been retired and are in their 50's. After watching a few clips from the fight, I still would not want to step into the ring with either one of them. They still have plenty of fight left in them.
Here, we see Caleb speaking to Joshua. He's 85 years old, but hasn't lost a step or any zeal concerning his desire for the Lord. He was still out there in the fray and holding his own so to speak! So much for the golden years of retirement!
Where has your command come from to retreat or lessen your service to the Lord? Now more than ever, we need to be faithful to our service and consistent in our stand! You might be retired from a place of employment, but please don't retire from your service to the Lord! Keep on the firing line!
Joshua 19:51 KJV — These are the inheritances, which Eleazar the priest, and Joshua the son of Nun, and the heads of the fathers of the tribes of the children of Israel, divided for an inheritance by lot in Shiloh before the LORD, at the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. So they made an end of dividing the country.
This last verse sums up the last 5 chapters of the book of Joshua. They have been dividing the Promise Land up between the different tribes.
Amazingly enough, there was enough land for everybody. Everybody had a piece and a place. God's promise and provision was sufficient.
The same is true in our life, we don't have to live off of someone elses faith or blessings. The Lord has some, personally for us! Just trust Him, and when He places you in your "lot" rejoice and use it for His glory!
God has a place for you!
Joshua 21:45 KJV — There failed not ought of any good thing which the LORD had spoken unto the house of Israel; all came to pass.
Just let the truth of this verse sink in today! What God says, God does! He's not looking to just obtain a good enough average, but He operates in perfection and completion!
Just trust Him!
Joshua 23:11 KJV — Take good heed therefore unto yourselves, that ye love the LORD your God.
It was a conquest like any other! The Israelites had went from wandering to conquering in just one generation.
It would be very easy for complacency or overconfidence to set in and take over. Joshua actually warned the Israelites about both of those.
He not only warned them, but gave them an instruction, that when followed would keep them, exactly where they need to be.
"...love the LORD your God..."
When we put the Lord first in every aspect of our lives, it helps keep us in the right mind set and attitude. He isn't to just be a fleeting thought throughout our day, but He should be the very essence of our being and motivation for our life! We are given this truth when we are instructed on what our love should encompass for the Lord.
Deuteronomy 6:5 KJV — And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
Joshua 24:22 KJV — And Joshua said unto the people, Ye are witnesses against yourselves that ye have chosen you the LORD, to serve him. And they said, We are witnesses.
In the right form and fashion I am all for accountability partners. Someone who will keep us to our word and plans.
But Joshua reminds the people here, that even if they have no accountability partners, they should still hold themselves accountable to their own words.
Do you ever hold yourself accountable or are you quick to excuse yourself and your actions?
Just because you think no one sees or notices, you should still hold yourself accountable to the truths and commands of the Scriptures. Disobedience whether public or private, is still disobedience.
We must hold ourselves accountable, for if we won't who will?